Week 1: Biomedical and Electrical Engineering

 Group Names: Samantha Au, Amanda Basinger, Cade Barton, Khaled Abu Hassan, Avi Anklesaria, Dhillon Alamshaw

Day 1: Biomedical and Electrical Engineering, Electric Power, Circuits
 Bioengineering/ Biomedical Engineering 

In the field of bioengineering/ Biomedical Engineering, it combines engineering expertise with medical needs for the enhancement of health care. It is a branch of engineering in which the knowledge and skills are developed and applied to define and solve problems in biology and medicine. Those working within the bioengineering field are of service to people, work w ith living systems, and apply advanced technology to the complex probems of medical care. Biomedical Engineers develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems by combing their knowledge of biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices.

For more information about Bioengineering (source): http://www.careercornerstone.org/bioeng/bioeng.htm

 Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Electrical engineers conduct research, and design, develop, test, and oversee the development of electronic systems and manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment and devices. Electrical engineers also supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. Electronics engineers are responsible for a wide range of technologies. THey specialize in areas suh as communications, signal processing, and control system or have a specialty within of these areas---control system or aviation electronics, for example.

For more information aobut Electrical Engineering (source): http://www.careercornerstone.org/eleceng/eleceng.htm

Electricity and Ohm's Law

Current (I) - what flows on a wire or conductor

                 - current's SI unit: Amperes (A)

Voltage (V) - the difference in electrical potential between two points in a circuit; it's the push or the pressure

                  - voltage's SI unit: Volts (E)

Resistance (R) - determines how much current will flow through a component; resisters are used to control voltage and current levels

                        - a very HIGH resistance allows a small amount of current to flow; a very LOW resistance allows a large amount of current to flow

                       - resister's SI unit: ohms

Power (P) - the amount o current times the voltage level at a given point

                 - power's SI unit: Wattage or watts

Current is directly proportional to voltage, If voltage is increased by a given percentage, current increases by the same percentages.

Current is inversely proportional to resistance. An increase in resistance results in a decrease in current.

A decrease in resistance results in an increase in current. It is important to note that resistance cannot be changed by changing voltage or current.

Resistance in a circuit is a physical constant and can only be changed by changing components or resistors rated at more or fewer ohms.


P = V*I = (v^2)/R = (I^2)/R

V = I*R

I = (P/R)^1/2


Series Circuits - aims to have the same amount of current flow through all the components placed inline

                        - it is called a 'series' because of the fact that the components are in the SAME single path of the current flow

                        - ex. V = v1 + v2 + v3...

Parallel Circuits - components are wired in separate loops; this circuit splits the current flow, and the current flowing through each component will ultimately combine to form the current flowing in the source

                          - both the voltage across the ends of the components and the polarities are identical

Series and Circuits Project

 In class we had an opportunity to make a hands-on project to create both a series circuit and a parallel circuit to gain more experience on them with the use of LED lights and buttons.

 Day 2: Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, 555 Circuits, Flip-Flop, Truth Tables

Logic Gates

Logic - science or art of exact reasoning

Binary Logic:

  1. AND gate = use multiplication sign (*)
  2. OR gate = use addition sign (+)
  3. NOT/ inverse gate = use apostrophe (')


  • All NOT operators must be evaluated, then
  • all AND operators (starting from the right if more than 1), and finally
  • all OR operators (starting from the right if more than 1) are evaluated
  • if different order is desired, that order must be enforced with parentheses

Boolean Algebra:

  • create equation from a truth table
  • if variable = 0, represents by variable
  • if variable = 1, represents by variable bar

555 Circuit:

  • '555 timer'  puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specific frequency
  • capacitor changes through R1 and R2 and only discharged through R2
  • *R represents resistor


  • only changes output when changing from HIGH to LOW

Truth Table:

  • summarize the results of a logic analysis for ALL possible combinations of the values of the input variables of an "if...then" statements
  • "if" conditions start from the left; their rows can be filled in systematically in include all possible combinations of input
  • "then" are the columns the far right
 Day 3: Medicine Delivery System Project
 Design Process

This is a simulation of our logic circuit, this proved that our original pin diagram would function correctly.

First Attempt to Test the x,y,z for the alarm with the toggle buttons. However we learned that buttons would be more stable than toggles so we then tried to use buttons later instead of the toggle switches.

These are our first attempts to create the alarm and clock. The upper board in these two images is the clock and the other is the alarm. We used the '555 timer' for time delays and flip-flop elements.

Day 4: Medicine Delivery System Project (Continued)

 Arduino SetUp:

Through this program, we are able to use the buttons to control the LED lights and the alarm with the gates.

Today, we updated the code so that pressing any two buttons will still allow red LED buttons to light up.

We finished all the circuits, clock, and the alarm and they are all connected together to the arduino with the program.

Published on February 25th, 2018

Last updated on October 17th, 2022